Nathaniel Wells , landowner and yeomanry officer. Early 20th century[ edit ] The growing Caribbean presence in the British military led to approximately 15, migrants arriving in the north-west of England around the time of World War I to work in munitions factories.
There was some tension between them and West Africans who had settled in the area. As a result of the losses during the war, the British government began to encourage mass immigration from the countries of the British Empire and Commonwealth to fill shortages in the labour market.
In , an area of public open space in Brixton was renamed Windrush Square to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the arrival of the ship bringing the first large group of West Indian migrants to the United Kingdom. Many former servicemen took this opportunity to return to Britain with the hopes of rejoining the RAF , while others decided to make the journey just to see what England was like.
Many only intended to stay in Britain for a few years, but although a number returned to the Caribbean, the majority remained to settle permanently. In June , a Cabinet committee was established with the terms of reference of finding "ways which might be adopted to check the immigration into this country of coloured people from British colonial territories.
Trade unions would often not help African-Caribbean workers and some pubs, clubs, dance halls and churches would bar black people from entering. Clashes continued and worsened into the s, and riots erupted in cities including London, Birmingham and Nottingham. Influenced by this kind of propaganda, gangs of Teddy Boys would often attack blacks in London.
The shared experience of employment by organisations such as London Transport and the National Health Service also played a role in the building of a British African-Caribbean identity.
Recession and turbulence, s and s[ edit ] Dancers at the Notting Hill Carnival The s and s were decades of comparative turbulence in wider British society; industrial disputes preceded a period of deep recession and widespread unemployment which seriously affected the economically less prosperous African-Caribbean community.
During the decades of the s and s, unemployment among the children of Caribbean migrants ran at three to four times that of white school leavers. The report identified both "racial discrimination" and a "racial disadvantage" in Britain, concluding that urgent action was needed to prevent these issues becoming an "endemic, ineradicable disease threatening the very survival of our society".
The Joint Campaign Against Racism committee reported that there had been more than 20, attacks on non-indigenous Britons including Britons of Asian origin during The ensuing government inquiry, the Macpherson Report, concluded that there was institutional racism in London's Metropolitan Police Service.
Among those children who were living with at least one Caribbean parent, only one in five was living with two Caribbean parents. In April , Prime Minister Theresa May apologised to leaders of Caribbean countries about the way immigrants had been treated,  promising compensation to those affected.
Of this number, , were resident in England and 2, in Wales. Belize is categorised as part of Central America. He estimates the population of West Indian ethnicity in to be between , and ,